Unnatural Nucleic-Acids 


Synthesis and Biophysical Characterization of PNA


The Use of Modified PNA  for Biosensing Applications

Relevant Publications

Rangel, A. E.; Chen, Z.; Ayele, T. M.; Heemstra, J. M. In Vitro Selection of an XNA Aptamer Capable of Small-Molecule Recognition. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Advance Article.

Ellipilli, S.; Phillips, J. D.; Heemstra, J. M. Synthesis of comb-shaped oligonucleotides using a non-nucleosidic branching phosphoramidite. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2018 16, 4659-4664.

Price, E. K.; Davis, D. L.; Aderibigbe, S. O.; Larkin, M. X.-H.; Barlow, E. D.; Chen, R.; Ford, L. C.; Gray, Z. T.; Gren, S. H.; Jin, Y.; Keddington, K. S.; Kent, A. D.; Kim, D.; Lewis, A.; Marrouche, R. S.; O’Dair, M. K.; Powell, D. R.; Scadden, M. H. C.; Session, C. B.; Tao, J.; Trieu, J.; Whiteford, K. N.; Yuan, Z.; Yun, G.; Zhu, J.; Heemstra, J. M. Effect of Buffer Conditions and Organic Co-Solvents on the Rate of Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition. J. Org. Chem. 2016 81, 6816-6819

Chen, Z.; Meek, K. N.; Rangel, A. E.; Heemstra, J. M. Synthesis and Polymerase Incorporation of β,γ-Modified α-L-Threofuranosyl Thymine Triphosphate Mimics. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2016 26, 3958-3962.

Peterson, A. M.; Tan, Z.; Kimbrough, E. M.; Heemstra, J. M. 3,3’-Dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine Perchlorate (DiO) as a Fluorogenic Probe for Measurement of Critical Micelle Concentration. Anal. Methods 2015 7, 6877-6882.

Anderton, G. I.; Bangerter, A. S.; Davis, T. C.; Feng, Z.; Furtak, A. J.; Larsen, J. O.; Scroggin, T. L.;  Heemstra, J. M. Accelerating Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition using Micellar Catalysis. Bioconjugate Chem. 2015 26, 1687-1691.

Peterson, A. M.; Heemstra, J. M. Controlling Self-Assembly of DNA-Polymer Conjugates for Applications in Imaging and Drug Delivery.WIREs Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol., 2015 7, 282-297.

De Costa, N. T. S.; Heemstra, J. M. Differential DNA and RNA Sequence Discrimination by PNA Having Charged Side Chains. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014 24, 2360-2363.

De Costa, N. T. S.; Heemstra, J. M. Evaluating the Effect of Ionic Strength on Duplex Stability for PNA Having Negatively or Positively Charged Side Chains. PLOS ONE 2013 8, e58670.

Spiropulos, N. G.; Heemstra, J. M. Templating Effect in DNA Proximity Ligation Enables use of Non-Bioorthogonal Chemistry in Biological Fluids. Artificial DNA: PNA & XNA 2012 3, 123-128.

Feagin, T. A.; Shah, N. I.; Heemstra, J. M. Convenient and Scalable Synthesis of Fmoc-Protected Peptide Nucleic Acid Backbone. J. Nucleic Acids. 2012 354549.


Synthesis and Applications of PNA